The Universal Copyright Symbol
Copyright legislation is part of the broader part of law recognised as intellectual property. The term intellectual property generally refers to the creations of the human mind. Intellectual property rights safeguard the interests of creators by giving them property rights over their creations.
From: World Intellectual Property Organization, 2005. Understanding Copyright and Related Rights. WIPO.
Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization permitting the sharing and use of creativity and knowledge through free legitimate means.
Creative Commons’ copyright licenses provide an easy and consistent way to give the public permission to share and use your creative work under your conditions.
The Creative Commons licenses are not an alternative to copyright, they work along with copyright enabling you to adapt your copyright terms to best suit your requirements.
From: Creative Commons
Video CC BY NC Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand with support from InternetNZ
"Copyright is the legal term, which describes the rights given to authors/creators of certain categories of work. Copyright protection extends to the following works:
- original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works,
- sound recordings, films,
- broadcasts, cable programmes,
- the typographical arrangement of published editions,
- computer programmes,
- original databases"
From: Irish Patent Office, 2014. What is Copyright?. Patents Office.
Protection for copyright is automatic with the creation of original work, there is no need to register for copyright protection. The Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 lays out the rights of copyright owners and penalties for infringement of copyright in Ireland.
Copyright protection extends to the following types of works:
Artistic work embraces: drawings, paintings, photographs, prints, collages, maps, charts, plans, engravings, etchings, lithographs, woodcuts, sculptures and architecture works.
Literary works incorporate computer programs.
If you wish to use work that is under copyright in a way that is restricted by copyright you need to get permission from the copyright owner.
In general copyright lasts for the life of the creator plus seventy years.
The Irish Copyright Licensing Agency (ICLA) represents Ireland’s authors, publishers and visual creators to license the use of their copyright works in return for just compensation. In addition to the copying permitted by the 2000 Act, a licensing scheme has been established under ICLA for Irish higher education institutions.
ICLA licenses cover a wide range of both Irish and overseas publications. However, some categories of works and some individual works are not covered by some of their licenses, these are found in the excluded Irish works list.
This guide provides an overview of copyright, it does not offer legal advice.
Readers at GMIT libraries are reminded that it is their responsibility to ensure compliance with copyright.
Even when copies have been made in compliance with regulations, readers should acknowledge the copyright of works they use, by correctly referencing the copyright owner and source.
You can copy if...
In the public domain means that the work is no longer subject to any copyright limitations as a result of expiration of the copyright period or because the work preceded any copyright protection legislation. Bear in mind that a work or image publicly available online does not mean that it is free to reuse or that it is in the public domain.
Fair dealing is an exemption to the right granted by copyright law to the author of a creative work. In short, a work may be used by anyone for research purposes or private study without the permission of the author, as long as the use is performed in a way that does not bias the rights of the copyright owner. If works are used for review or criticism, the same stipulations apply, along with an acknowledgement to the author and title of the work.